How to maintain the body balance?

Dizziness and balance disorder is a very common disease, especially for the elderly, and it has very serious repercussions, such as falling and crashing to the ground. Therefore, this matter must be taken seriously and expedited to be treated.

It is known that the members of the body weaken with age, or part of it is infected, and difficulty occurs in maintaining balance when walking or making some movements, and maintaining balance becomes a matter that requires effort, perhaps with a crutch or a person on which to rely, and accidents of falls abound. And contribute to weak bones in adults in the ease of occurrence of fractures, especially fracture of the neck of the femur, which is a common cause of death of the elderly, despite the development taking place in orthopedics.

To understand dizziness and balance disturbance, it is necessary to understand the mechanism by which the body maintains its balance. This is done by securing two things:

1 – Preventing the fall: by keeping the center of gravity of the body within its base on the ground, which is a well-known physical principle, so the person tends to the right or the north, or forward or backward, and may expand between the feet, to secure that goal. And this must be done very quickly and continuously in the various daily movements.

2- Keeping the imagination of things visible on the retina steady, despite the movement of these things, or the movement of the head. This is necessary to maintain the clarity of the visible objects. Otherwise, it becomes like someone who looks at a video image moving while taking the camera, mixes vision and loses balance.

How does the body balance?

This is done in a process in which different organs in the body are involved.

First there is a driving center at the bottom of the brain consisting of interconnected nerve structures, which receive accurate information about any movement in the body from several sources, which compare, interrupt, and produce a result on the basis of which commands are appropriate to that result.

• Peripheral centers whose mission is to inform the nervous center of every change in the position of the body, and with every movement it moves, so that the center can know a new position precisely, and act accordingly. These oceanic intelligence centers are mainly three:

1. Al-Ainan: It is a direct vision that sees the new situation and informs the command center.

2. The so-called deep sensation, which is a feeling found in the joints of the joints and the tendons of the muscles, as they are equipped with nerve endings that feel the contraction or relaxation of the muscles, as well as the change of tension on the joints of the joints. 

When the position of the body changes, the tension on the ligaments and tendons changes, increasing on one side and decreasing on the opposite side. The special nerve endings there transfer this change with special nerves, to the command center, with a previously known signal, from which the center understands the new position and acts accordingly.

Foot neck joint:

Perhaps the most important joint in this function is the neck neck joint, as it is the change of the position of this joint when walking on rough terrain that tells the center about the tilt of the land on which the person is walking, so the center orders the body to lean forward or backward to prevent falling. And fixing the neck of the foot (because of a broken or torn ligament) causes difficulty in maintaining balance while walking on uneven ground.

3. The ear with its inner part: The ear has three sections: the outer, the middle, and the inner. In the inner ear, there are two parts: a section called the helix, which is the department for hearing, and a section called the vestibule, which is specialized in preserving balance.

In the vestibule there are two types of anatomical structures:

The first, consisting of three channels perpendicular to each other, which is filled with its own liquid. These channels have nerve endings that alert the movement of this fluid. And this fluid does not move during the various movements except when the head rotates, due to the inertia of this liquid, as the water moves in a cup when it is circulated. 

As a result, the nerve endings in these channels alert when the person turns, and with their nerve connections, information about this rotation is sent to the command center. And every alert in it means with respect to the center a rotation in the head with a specific direction and speed.

As for the other part of the vestibule, it also consists of liquid jovin, which is also filled with fluid, and has nerve endings on which stone crystals are placed, placing weight on it. This compressive weight changes with the change in the position of the head, or when moving in a linear fashion, such as when climbing in an elevator. A change in this compressive weight alerts the nerve endings, which in turn sends signals to the center indicating the characteristics of the linear movement made by the body.

The command center then knows any movement we make, whether straight or rotational, from the signals that come from the vestibule of the inner ear.

The bottom line is that the command center receives information from the eyes, the ears, and the nerve endings of deep sense. He analyzes and interrupts this information to come up with a visualization of the new position. He thus draws a constantly changing posture and, based on this image, sends the necessary commands, through special nerves, to the muscles in the limbs and trunk, to take a certain position that guarantees no fall. 

It also sends commands for the ball of the eye, to move smoothly with the movement of the camel in the retina, despite the movement of the head, thus preserving the clarity of the image. This is a very simple simplification mechanism.

As a result, if the incoming signals are weak, such as poor vision, or weak sense of nerves, as in diabetes, the incoming signals, which provide the center with the necessary information about any movement, decrease and the ability to maintain balance is decreased. 

Also, if false signals are received as a result of an injury to the vestibule of the inner ear, such as inflammation, an increase in the pressure of the fluid, or the fall of the previously mentioned crystals from its place, the center and due to its reflexive action and its previous programming, does not distinguish at first glance between honest and false signals resulting from the disease, He sends unnecessary commands to the eyes, moves them unnecessarily, and the world seems to spin. It also sends orders to the muscles in the torso and extremities, so it takes an unnecessary position that puts the center of gravity out of the circle of attachment, and the person falls.