How to deal with infections and their pathological consequences?

Inflammation is a vital response to the immune system that occurs when the body’s tissues are exposed to shocks, toxic substances, heat, or radiation , or when it infects a pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, or virus. Inflammation is an important defense mechanism to maintain a healthy body, which works to get rid of the causes of damage and start the process of tissue restoration to get a full recovery and restore tissue balance again.

Mechanism of inflammation

This response includes many cellular and molecular processes, in which the affected cells secrete certain chemicals, such as histamine, bradicainin, and prostaglandins, which in turn increase the permeability of the blood vessels , which leads to fluid leakage from the blood vessels towards the tissues and thus leads to the isolation of this cause from parts of the body The other.

These chemicals also attract white blood cells (one of the main types of blood-forming cells) to the affected area and stimulate their action, where activated white blood cells secrete several small-sized proteins (5-20 kDa) called cytokines .

Also, foreign bodies and damaged or dead cells present in the affected area are eliminated by one of the types of white blood cells, which are called macrophages, which in turn do this through a process called phagocytosis .

Types of inflammation

Infections are classified according to the duration of the infection into two types:

Acute inflammation

It lasts for a short period, not to exceed a few days. The inflammation starts quickly and the symptoms become severe within a short period of time.

Chronic inflammation

It lasts for several weeks, months or more and is characterized by a slow appearance of symptoms on the patient. The extent and effects of chronic inflammation vary, depending on the cause of the infection and the body’s ability to repair and overcome the damage caused by it.

This type of inflammation occurs when acute inflammation occurs repeatedly and irregularly, for several reasons:

  • Not treating the cause of acute inflammation.
  • Infection with an autoimmune disease .
  • Exposure to irritating substances (such as chemicals or polluted air) for long periods of time.

How do we deal with infections and their pathological consequences

Symptoms of inflammation

There are many symptoms that appear on a patient when he has an infection, as these symptoms vary, depending on the type of infection . With acute inflammation, the following symptoms usually appear:

  • Swelling and redness in the affected area.
  • Pain in the affected area.
  • Warm the affected area.
  • Loss of tissue or affected organ function.

It is worth noting that these symptoms appear together only when inflammation occurs in the layers of the skin, but when inflammation occurs in the internal organs , some of these symptoms may appear, but not all of them . For example, when infection with some types of lung infections, the patient may not feel pain in the affected area due to the absence of nerve endings. Sensory in that affected area.

As for the patient with chronic inflammation , many different symptoms may appear, such as:

  • Flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills , fatigue or fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle stiffness, and joint pain.
  • Mouth sores.
  • Pain in the chest area.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • rash.
  • Insomnia.
  • Depression , anxiety and mood disorders.
  • Infection frequently.

Inflammation and chronic diseases

Although the importance of inflammation as an integral part of the immune system and other mechanisms of defense of the body, it has been considered for a long period of time as one of the main factors causing many diseases . Where several studies reported that approximately 15% of human cancers are associated with chronic infections.

It has been observed that this vital process may cause damage to many tissues that make up the various organs of the body, such as the heart, pancreas, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain, digestive system, and reproductive system, which may pave the way for disease in these organs.

Among these diseases:

Cardiovascular diseases

Several clinical studies have shown that there is a strong and stable relationship between highly sensitive C – reactive protein (a protein produced in response to inflammation) and prediction of cardiovascular disease . Arteriosclerosis is also a prelude to inflammation, which leads to many cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks and stroke.

Diabetes

Immune cells may leak into the tissues of the pancreas and secrete many molecules that stimulate inflammation in these tissues. High levels of many proteins that are secreted in response to inflammation in the blood have also been observed in patients with type 2 diabetes, such as C-reactive protein, fibrinogen , plasminogen activator inhibitor and other proteins. In addition to the high level of sialic acid and cytokines in the blood in these patients.

The high level of C-reactive protein and cytokines in the blood may predict the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.

Rheumatoid arthritis

There are many beliefs that REM is caused by infection with one of the pathogens or exposure to various environmental factors such as cigarette smoke, which in turn leads to stimulating a local inflammatory response in the joint area, the leakage of immune cells to this area and the secretion of cytokines .

Brain diseases

The occurrence of inflammation in the brain tissue may lead to increased neuronal irritation, damage to neurons , and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier for many molecules and compounds. It has been observed that inflammation may also occur in the brain tissue of patients with diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson ‘s disease , where this inflammation is caused by the activation of immune cells and small glial cells residing in the brain, which secrete many proteins that pave and stimulate inflammation.

Respiratory system diseases

Excessive acute inflammation can lead to pulmonary fibrosis , and the presence of chronic inflammation in lung tissue is often observed frequently in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome , cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Where studies have proven nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with small bronchitis or visceral lung tissue caused by cigarette smoking . In the long term, smoking can cause increased leakage of macrophages, neutrophils, and activated T-lymphocytes into the bronchi, stimulating protease production, free radicals and secretion of cytokines into the lung.